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Sapphire is the single crystal form of the compound aluminum oxide and it is the second hardest material in nature after diamond. Sapphire offers optical transparency, physical strength, resistance to impact, abrasion, and corrosion, high pressure and temperature durability, bio-compatibility and is able to be shaped into nearly any shape for a variety of applications. It is an ideal base material for deposition of semiconductor materials for manufacturing optical and electronic devices.

Sapphire's electrical and material properties make it the predominant base material on which to produce white and blue LEDs and sapphire is also the base substrate material for producing Silicon-on-Sapphire RFICs.

  Sapphire properties


  Resistant to high temperatures

   Does not melt at the temperature below 2050°C.

   Retains purity in high-temperature environments

  Rigid and durable

Resistant to scratching by a majority of materials

Resistant to high pressure


 Chemically inert, insoluble in the

 majority of conventional industrial

 solutions and corrosion-resistant

Can be used in aggressive environment

Easily washed

Long-life performance

Possess high purity

In some environments operating life of sapphire up to 5 times more than of quartz

 Wide transmittance spectrum in UV,

 visible IR and microwave ranges

  Continuous and stable transmittance of infra-red rays

  Outstanding light transmittance at 0.25 – 4.50 μm

 High thermal conductivity

  Enables rapid heating and cooling

Sapphire characteristics:


  Chemical formula:


  Growing method:

 Kyropoulos, Stepanov (EFG)



 a = b = 4.77 A

 c = 13.04 A


  Melting temperature:

 2040 °C

  Linear expansion coefficient:

 6.7 x 10-6 / °C parallel to С axis

 5.0 x 10-6 / °C perpendicular to С axis

  Thermal conductivity:

 46.06 W/m °K (0°C)



 3.98 g/cm3


 Mohs: 9

 Knoop: 1800 daN/mm2 parallel to С axis

 2200 daN/mm2 perpendicular to С axis

  Tensile strength:

 400 MPa/mm2 (25°C) 275 MPa/mm2 (500°C) 345 MPa/mm2 (1000°C)

  Flexural strength:

 35 to 39 daN/mm2

  Compression stress:

 2.0 GPa

  Young's modulus

 3.6 x 104 to 4.4 x 104 daN/mm2


  Dielectric permeability:

 9.3 (103 - 109 Hz, 25°C) perpendicular to С axis

 11.5 (1033 - 109 Hz, 25°C) parallel to С axis

  Specific resistivity:

 1016 Ω/cm (25°C)

 1011 Ω/cm (500°C)

 106 Ω/cm (1000°C)

Sapphire Transmittance range